Zeng Wei saw many smiling faces in the process of internship. He wrote in the Memories of Wechat： "During this time， I have deep feelings. Adorable and poor children make me feel sad， they need the love from everyone!" What he said was the unforgettable memory he had in the Special Education School of Shaodong， Shaoyang， Hunan Province， Chinese， with children who needed special education.
At the beginning of 2015， the Chinese Ministry of Education to determined 37 cities (states) and counties (districts) in China as national experimenting district of special education， the development of special education reform of which would get the support of policy， fund and project. In fact， Zeng Wei has had contact with children who are similar to "fallen angels" worldwide. Some data show that 8% to 12% of the total number of students the U.S. "need special education"; in Britain the percentage of children who are examined to be "in need of special education" is 20%; the reported prevalence rate of difficult children in the Netherlands is 26%; the ratio of special children in Poland is 30%...
How much sorrow and touching smiles are behind these cold figures is perhaps unknown to us， but it is very urgent to take positive action to endow the angels a pair of more powerful "wings".
To touch a way out for
Zeng Wei is a 27-year-old senior student majoring in Art Design of Tianjin University of Technology. He said，" Actually I want to be a teacher". During the two weeks in which he had contact with the children with the Special Education School of Shaodong， he had complicated feelings.
He said frankly， "These children are both adorable and poor. They are adorable because they often smiled at me， saying hello Mr. Zeng. They are poor because most of them are eleven or twelve years old， being the first grade student， having some problems in learning and being lonely sometimes. However， their parents do not care about them. They want parents and they also have their own dreams." In his spare time after finishing the assignments， Zeng Wei launches fund-raising activities for children， "my brother and I have congenital hearing impairment， so it is more easy for us to have empathy." he told the reporter.
Previously， Louise Arbour， UN High Commissioner for Human Rights said in a public statement， "The existing system of human rights aims to promoting and protecting the rights and interests of the handicapped， but the existing standards and institutions can not provide full protection to all kinds of people with disabilities." So， in the UN International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities， it is particularly pointed out that the purpose and function of special education is to develop of human potential to the most， and develop of the personalities， talents， intelligence and physical fitness of persons with disabilities fully， to improve their ability of surviving， developing and adapting.
Actually， since the British missionary Hill Murray created the new era of modern special education in China in 1874， special education has had a history of more than 100 years in China， and special education institutions such as the Special Education School of Shaodong have also experienced flowers and thorns in this long path.
Take the Special Education School of Shaodong as an example， the reporter got to know that the school currently has more than 200 children， more than 40 teachers and 12 classes. There are three classes of Deaf Department (children with hearing impairment)， seven classes of Intelligence Inspiration (mentally handicapped children above 7 years old) and two classes of Rehabilitation Department of Mentally Handicapped ( handicapped children from 0 to 7 years old) . "In the curriculum setting， classes of Deaf Department have corresponding art classes， dance rhythm class and computer practice classes; children of classes of Intelligence Inspiration are divided into different classes according to their IQ levels， and the courses set up for them are relatively closer to life than those of average students; classes of Rehabilitation Department of Mentally Handicapped have a variety of courses， including morning exercises， classes with comprehensive themes， music， art crafts， games circle classes， individual training class (one to one teaching) and sensory integrated course." Tutor Shen introduced to the reporter.
Of course， Shaodong is a microcosm of Chinese special education schools. According to the 2013 statistics of the Ministry of Education of China， in 2013 the total number of special education schools was 1933， 80 more than that of last year. Enrolling 66000 people， 278 more than that of the previous year and increased by 0.4%; 368000 students at school， 11000 less than that of the last year， dropped for 2.8%.
The difficulty of
Though the statistics show and the 2015 government work report mentioned particularly to promote the construction of the standardization of special education， but in the actual process of implementing， the development path of "special education" still have difficulties.
Some teachers of special education school pointed out in the NPC and CPPCC that， since there is no uniform teaching material in China， some special education schools have to grope for the way to give classes. For example， some schools refer to the teaching materials of ordinary schools while some schools have their own textbooks. No standardization of textbook may cause the problem of uneven quality easily， and it is bad for the development of students in the long run.
In addition， the Ministry of Education of China pointed out clearly while making summary of the situation of special education in 2013： the increase of the scale special education had slowed down and the quality of teachers needed to be improved. Some data show that in 2013， the number of full-time Chinese special education teachers was 46000， 1956 more than that of the previous year; the ration of the full-time teachers who had had the training of special education was 61%， with an increase of 14.3% compared with that of the previous year. However， compared with the above mentioned base number of 368000， the number of full-time teachers seems little.
It have been two years since Ms. Shen entered the faculty team， "First of all， I still feel that I lack ability and practical knowledge; secondly， the children of special education schools need more intuitive， easily understood toys， teaching tools and rehabilitation equipment." In the interview， she did not avoid the problems she felt during teaching. At the same time， Zhao Qiangtai， Deputy Minister of Department of Conservation of Shenzhen Baoan Social Welfare Center， a Special Education major who took up special education for many years after graduation stressed the same problem while receiving the interview of Nanfang Daily that， “ Love alone cannot solve the problem. The characteristics of students in learning must be understood， for example children with reading disorders cannot learn from books， and teaching methods， teaching tools and so on should be plain and simple."
Some experts even pointed out that， according to the relevant provisions of Chinese "Education Law"， Chinese education mainly relies on fiscal appropriation， with multi-channel financing as supplements， " the investment of special education funds is much lower than that of the education of average children， which is unfair phenomenon." As for education fairness， China Premier Li Keqiang mentioned that "Creating educational fairness brooks no delay" in many public occasions， which is more suitable for special education.
Caring actions brook no delay
Of course， in addition to the objective difficulties such as infrastructure， social discrimination and the absence of family education included in the education system of special children are urgent problems to be face to in the caring action.
Zeng Wei also told the reporter his concern， "They cannot hear beautiful sounds， say touching words or communicate like average people， causing many difficulties in their learning， entertainment， health care and so on. Their psychological states are sometimes inferior and sometimes lonely." In view of this， Zeng Wei launched a fund-raising activity for caring the deaf and mute students and raised 2000 RMB in just two weeks.
It is said that the warmhearted Zeng Wei asked for the price and bargained with the boss through mobile phone typing， bought not only daily items such cups， toothpastes， toothbrush， soap， glasses for mouth-rinsing and towels for children， but also stationery such as pencils， erasers， exercise books， sketch books， watercolor pen， oil painting sticks， math exercise books， fairy tales books， composition books， calligraphy learning books and so on. "I was most touched by that they communicated with me every day， referred to me when they had problems in learning and they want to acquire more knowledge." When it come to the situation at that time， Zeng still has fresh memories.
After all， Zeng Wei should not be “fighting” alone， and to protect the rights of children with special needs effectively is the common responsibility of the state， society and parents. In the interview， Ms Shen said， "I hope every family can have investigation during pregnancy， and face up to the problem when it comes out. Parents should pay attention to their children positively， never give up them， help them to have early rehabilitation to the largest extend， and have perfect docking in different links from educational achievements， employment， self-care and so on. No matter what level the child arrives at last，and in what state he lives， he should be able to live a good life in the state."
Zeng Wei also said， "In addition to more care from society， school education and social education are suggested to take positive actions， including that more people in society learn sign language， families have homeland interaction and homeland co-nurturing."
in foreign countries
Some Data show that 6000000 special children in the U.S. are receiving special education and have basically achieved the goal that all special children can go to school. In addition， relevant legal provisions of the U.S. stipulate that every school district should support special education， and from kindergarten， primary school， junior high school to senior high school， teachers and equipment of special education must be equipped. At the same time， the society of the U.S. has complete diagnosis system and treatment system， having effect on the burden of the family and the treatment of children. For example， if a child is diagnosed as special child， all treatment costs should be borne by the government， and he/she can accept all kinds of treatments and early education at home before the age of three， and the preschool education and special education after three years old is also a complete system.
In Japan， special education for handicapped children is included into the compulsory education. In 2007， in order to grasp the educational needs of children with special accurately， special education was transmitted to special supporting education， and special education institutions were set up， construction of teachers of special education was strengthened， the special education conditions was improved， the teaching quality of special education was improved and the funding was increased， as well as some other means to strengthen the protection of the rights of children with special needs.
Australia stresses the importance of early intervention， for example， newly-born babies of 10 months should receive hearing screening examinations， then as long as the parents think that the children are abnormal and need special help， the can inquire relevant departments， and get suggestions of health care and education services. In addition， when the children arrive schooling age， a public school will be used to arrange for them， and the children will be equipped with barrier-free facilities and tutors. The school will work out the funds required， the government will audit and allocate it， and public schools cannot refuse to accept the assigned children.
作者： 來源：聯合國青年技術培訓 2015年3期